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Sea and Rain

Accession Number
1955/1.89

Title
Sea and Rain

Artist(s)
James Abbott McNeill Whistler

Artist Nationality
American (North American)

Object Creation Date
1865

Medium & Support
oil on canvas

Dimensions
30 ½ in x 39 ½ in x 2 9/16 in (77.47 cm x 100.33 cm x 6.51 cm);20 ⅞ in x 28 ⅞ in x 1 in (53.02 cm x 73.34 cm x 2.54 cm);30 ½ in x 39 ½ in x 2 9/16 in (77.47 cm x 100.33 cm x 6.51 cm)

Credit Line
Bequest of Margaret Watson Parker

Label copy
James McNeill Whistler
United States, 1834–1903
Sea and Rain
1865
Oil on canvas
University of Michigan Museum of Art, Bequest of Margaret Watson Parker, 1955/1.89
During the late summer of 1865, Gustave Courbet and Whistler, whose early training and orientation as a painter had been in the realist style, spent some weeks at the fashionable seaside resort town of Trouville, accompanied by Whistler’s mistress Joanna Hiffernan. Years later, Courbet recalled fondly the time the trio spent at Trouville and claimed the youthful Whistler as a student—an assertion that Whistler vigorously denied. The mature Courbet, whose canvases show paint thickly laid in with a palette knife, could not have contrasted more sharply with the approach of the younger American painter, whose canvases evidence a thinner and more gossamer surface.
Both Courbet and Whistler painted marine views during this sojourn to the Atlantic shore. Whereas the older artist’s seascapes tend to emphasize dramatic elements of the coast—breaking waves and billowing clouds—Whistler’s work had already begun to depart from the tenets of realism in favor of a more evanescent and aesthetic response to the motif of the sea. The understated depiction of the water on a misty and overcast day is quite different from Courbet’s more muscular portrayals from this date.
(Normandy show, 2010)

Subject matter
Whistler accompanied the Realist painter Gustave Courbet in a late summer painting campaign along the Normandy coast, in the resort town of Trouville. Although Whistler had embraced the tenets of Realism early in his career, by 1865 he had begun to evolve his own painting style that departed from the vigorous brushwork and heavy impasto of Courbet's example. This work, painted in the older artist's company, exhibits Whistler's characteristic thin veils of paint that evoke the atmosphere along the coastline rather than minutely describe it. The presence of the man implies no narrative story but is a precisely placed accent within the composition. Whistler's credo of "art for art's sake" has already shaped how he portrays a cloudy day at a summer retreat.

Physical Description
The painting depicts a solitary male figure standing along the shore. The thin layers of paint evoke a misty, overcast day with the figure standing perhaps on a tidal flat.

Primary Object Classification
Painting

Primary Object Type
seascape

Collection Area
Western

Rights
If you are interested in using an image for a publication, please visit http://umma.umich.edu/request-image for more information and to fill out the online Image Rights and Reproductions Request Form.

Keywords
Figures
Impressionism
beaches
coastlines
seas
seascapes
shores
standing
water

17 Related Resources

Lesson Plan: Symmetry and Islamic Tile
(Part of: Lesson Plans)
Exhibitions Objects from The Lens of Impressionism: Photography and Painting Along the Normandy Coast, 1850-1874 
(Part of: The Lens of Impressionism: Photography and Painting Along the Normandy Coast, 1850-1874)
Essay: James McNeill Whistler
(Part of 2 Learning Collections)
Absence
(Part of 5 Learning Collections)
The Sea
(Part of 3 Learning Collections)
Mood in Landscape Tour
(Part of: Docent Thematic Tours)
High School: Realism to Abstraction
(Part of: Docent Curricular Tours)
High School: Inspiration
(Part of: Docent Curricular Tours)
High School Tour Options
(Part of: Visit UMMA: Curricular Tour Descriptions for Teachers)
Grammar and Ekphrasis Writing Portfolio
(Part of: Writing + Art Enrichment Activities)
Whistler
(Part of: Watery Earth)
Docent Materials for Teaching: Toolbox
(Part of: Docent Information From Training Continuing Education Sessions)

& Author Notes

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