Advanced Search

K-12 Educator
K-12 Student
Museum Visitor
UMMA Docent
UMMA Staff
University Faculty
University Student
Between and Mortarboard


UMMA Object Specific Fields






Query builder

Female Twin Figure

Accession Number
1983/2.191

Title
Female Twin Figure

Artist(s)
Yoruba

Artist Nationality
Yoruba (culture or style)

Object Creation Date
1900-1983

Medium & Support
wood, string, and cowrie shells

Dimensions
11 13/16 in x 4 1/16 in x 4 1/8 in (30 cm x 10.32 cm x 10.48 cm)

Credit Line
Gift of Prof. and Mrs. Horace M. Miner

Label copy
The word "altar" or "shrine" in the Yoruba language means both "face of the gods" and "threshold to the gods." An altar is a locus of worship, a point of connection, and the place of the "in-between" where life and death converge and this world meets the one beyond. For genetic reasons, Yoruba have the highest twinning rate of any human population. They honor deceased twins with altars like the one reconstructed here. An altar is a living art form that must be fed and cared for by devotees who leave offerings of food and sacrificial gifts in adoration of the departed. Twins who die in infancy have Ibeji figures such as these carved in their honor. Bearing and nourishing newborn twins is physically difficult and dangerous to the health of both mother and nuslings, and many do perish. The hope is that by honoring a twin that dies, its other will survive and flourish.

Subject matter
Up until the 1980s, Ere ibeji were small figures used by Yoruba peoples in the worship of twins. This tradition has largely been replaced by portraits and plastic dolls (cf. Micheli, Doubles and Twins in African Arts, Spring 2008, p. 79). Twins are thought to be two bodies sharing one soul, so to placate, as well as embody the spirit (emi), a figure (ere) would be carved to represent the deceased twin (ibeji) (cf. Drewal, Yoruba: Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought, 1989, p. 170). Yoruba peoples have the highest rate of twins per birth in the world, and in the past, high infant mortality meant many twin figures were carved (cf. Nicklin, Yoruba: A Celebration of African Art, 1991, p. 30). The ere ibeji  was treated as a living person, regularly fed, washed, clothed, and carried (cf. Nicklin, Yoruba: A Celebration of African Art, 1991, p. 30). As a center of this ritual activity, these twin figures transformed from a memorial to an embodiment of the deceased twin that allowed them to be present to the living (cf. Drewal, Yoruba: Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought, 1989, p. 175). In addition to housing the spirit of a deceased twin, ere ibeji also represented the Yoruba ideal of good character. Part of what constitutes good character is a sense of composure or ‘coolness’, called itutu (cf. Thompson, Flash of the Spirit, 1983, p. 12-13). Many aspects of ere ibeji embody this sense of ‘coolness’. The calm face with serious, sealed lips and a poised stance with hands at the sides is a position of spiritual alertness that reflects ‘coolness’ and thus, good character (cf. Thompson, Flash of the Spirit, 1983, p. 11).  After being carved, the head of the twin figure would be rubbed with an indigo dyed cloth and some hairstyles/headgear were painted with blue pigment (cf. Drewal, Yoruba: Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought, 1989, p. 172-173; Doris, Yoruba Images and Aesthetics, 2004, p. 22), as blue is the color of ‘coolness’. Twins are also associated with Shango, the Yoruba orisa (or god) of thunder, and the protector of ibeji, as twins are called “children of thunder” (cf. Drewal, Yoruba: Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought, 1989, p. 170). Some aspects of ere ibeji reference Shango, such as the rubbing of the twin figure with red camwood powder, as Shango is associated with the color red, and plaited hairstyles, as Shango is often depicted with plaited hair (cf. Doris, Yoruba Images and Aesthetics, 2004, p. 22). The cowrie shells attached to the twin figure are a common symbol of wealth, as the Yoruba used cowrie shells as currency in the past (cf. Drewal, Yoruba: Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought, 1989, p. 29). The marks on the face of this ere ibeji may represent family lineage or place of origin (cf. Doris, Yoruba Images and Aesthetics, 2004, p. 22). 

Physical Description
Standing female figure on a square base. The hands are at the sides,  one of which holds a string of cowrie shells. The figure has prominent breasts and on the face there are three horizontal marks on each cheek. The hair is a in a round, comb-like shape. 

Primary Object Classification
Sculpture

Primary Object Type
figure

Collection Area
African

Rights
If you are interested in using an image for a publication, please visit http://umma.umich.edu/request-image for more information and to fill out the online Image Rights and Reproductions Request Form.

Keywords
children (people by age group)
commemorative sculpture
personal shrines
souls
standing

1 Related Resource

Devotional Objects Across Religions
(Part of 3 Learning Collections)

& Author Notes

All Rights Reserved