Addiss, Stephen. Nanga Paintings. London: R. G. Sawers, 1975.
"Japanese art has a rich tradition in the depiction of flora and fauna. Until the 17thcentury powerful and myth-like creatures such as dragons, phoenixes, lion dogs, birds of prey and tigers were portrayed as aggressive. This changed however when the influence of the samurai subsided and urban culture began to develop. Rich merchants sought refinement and a sympathetic style and in the artistic rendition of nature docile animals in subtle well-balanced compositions emerged. Flowers and birds became popular subjects, not only for their esthetic beauty but for their symbolic significance as well.
The literal meaning of the Japanese word kachō-ga is ‘images of flowers and birds’. Richly coloured flowers and birds are the focal point of this exhibition that illustrates the origin and development of this decorative genre. Colourful plants and animals embellish the screens, scrolls, albums, illustrated books, fan-shaped prints and graphs dating back to the 18th and 20th century."
"Kachō-Ga. The Poetry of Japanese Nature.” Sieboldhuis, 13 Feb. 2019, www.sieboldhuis.org/en/exhibitions/kachōga-de-poëzie-van-de-japanse-natuur.