Due to the popular emerging form of print culture in the 19th century, writers and artists were able to publish their ideas and works in more accessible means to the masses, which incidentally in France, stoked the revolutions of the century.
Honoré-Victorin Daumier was a French printmaker during this period, who is best remembered for his political caricatures. Perhaps his most well-known caricature was that of King Louis Philippe, Gargantua, from 1831, in which the King is depicted as the giant French monster Gargantua, eating up his subjects' money and defecating them out as laws that only benefited the bureaucracy and elite. Consequently, this publication landed Daumier in prison for some time, and generated a new and more vigorous reinforcement of press laws, or in other words, censorship.
Gargantua, Honoré-Victorin Daumier 1831
Towards the later end of the century, print culture had morphed as a means for artists to document modern life, primarily in the cities of France.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was a printmaker whose ties with the theatrical nightlife of Paris is commonly illustrated in his posters, lithographs and woodcuts. A popular setting for his works was the Moulin Rouge, a cabaret where the provocative can-can dance was invented, as well as other café-concerts. He also highlighted dancers and performers in his illustrations: "La Goulue" was a can-can dancer and the star of the Moulin Rouge, known for guzzling customers' drinks as she danced; Aristide Bruant was a cabaret singer whose satirical lyrics often poked fun at the upper-class.
Moulin Rouge: La Goulue, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 1891
Ambassadeurs: Aristide Bruant, Toulouse-Lautrec 1892